Quote To Live By: “Perhaps the most valuable result of all education is the ability to make yourself do the thing you have to do, when it ought to be done, whether you like it or not; it is the first lesson that ought to be learned; and however early a man’s training begins, it is probably the last lesson that he learns thoroughly.”-Thomas H. Huxley


  • Contaminated Sediment Assessment
  • Ecological Risk Assessment
  • Risk-Based Remedial Decision-Making
  • Natural Resource Damage Assessment
  • Sediment and Water Quality Studies
  • Univariate and Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

  • Full Profile

    Gary Long is an ecologist with over 16 years of experience working on contaminated sediment issues in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. His work focuses primarily on ecological risk assessment, risk-based remedial decision-making, and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) for contaminated sediments sites regulated under CERCLA, RCRA, and state voluntary programs. He has developed site-specific risk assessment strategies for these sites involving the design and implementation of sediment/pore water quality, surface water quality, ecotoxicological, tissue residue, and biological community studies. In his role as technical leader on these projects, Gary has successfully participated in negotiations with state and federal regulators to develop risk assessment strategies, to support the selection of risk-based remedial alternatives, and to design long-term monitoring programs for contaminated sediment sites. Gary has also participated in multiple, high-profile NRDA cases, developing injury assessment strategies and providing technical leadership in the quantification of natural resource damages and the valuation of compensatory restoration projects for contaminated sediment sites.

    Gary has strong knowledge and experience in the evaluation and effective communication of environmental data to support risk assessment and NRDA including, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses, exposure modeling, injury quantification, and habitat equivalency analysis (HEA). Mr. Long’s specialized area of expertise is benthic ecology where he has designed and conducted benthic investigations in various aquatic systems to assess ecological impacts associated with contaminated surface water and sediment.


    • M.S., Biology, George Mason University, 2001
    • B.A., Environmental & Evolutionary Biology, Dartmouth College, 1997.


    • Hazardous Waste Training (OSHA CFR 29:1910:120)
    • Certified Project Manager, URS Corporation, December 2010.


    Ecological Risk Assessment Experience

    Former Explosives Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Project included the design and implementation of a comprehensive ecological risk assessment (ERA) to evaluate the protectiveness of a proposed 26-acre sediment dredging project to remediate mercury-impacted sediments in a 196-acre lake. The ERA scope included a lake-wide, multi-media evaluation of potential ecological risk to aquatic and semi-aquatic receptors outside of the removal area limit. Technical responsibilities included oversight of scope development, implementation of field investigations, data evaluation and reporting, and the development of a risk-based decision making framework for managing potentially impacted sediments. Led technical aspects of negotiations with federal and state agencies to develop a revised risk-based remedial strategy based on data collected as part of the ERA and other supporting investigations. Designed and negotiated a long-term monitoring program to evaluate post-remediation exposure conditions for mercury in the lake.

    Former Explosives Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Project Manager and Technical Lead

    Project was a multi-phase ecological investigation of the Wanaque River in Passaic County. Designed and implemented investigations to assess the potential ecological impacts of mercury and other metals. Investigations included extensive analytical characterization of mercury in surface water, sediment, pore water, bank soils, and fish tissue; additional site characterization activities included extensive habitat and substrate mapping. Data from these studies were integrated into a conceptual site model (CSM) for mercury fate/transport and potential ecological exposure pathways in the river. Provided technical support for the development and implementation of an interim remedial measure (IRM) to address mercury-impacted sediments in the river. Coordinated and managed a geotechnical investigation of subsurface conditions in the river to support the IRM design.

    Chemical Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Technical Lead

    Project included the development of a strategy to evaluate potential ecological risk and natural recovery processes in sediments within a freshwater canal impacted by a contaminated groundwater seep from an adjacent industrial facility. Directed the completion of a screening-level ecological risk assessment (SLERA) to evaluate the potential impacts of chlorobenzene and other organic contaminants in sediment on ecological receptors. Developed a framework to evaluate monitored natural recovery (MNR) of the biologically active zone (BAZ) based on federal guidance documents. The framework integrated multiple lines of evidence for evaluating natural recovery processes for seep-related constituents and the viability of MNR as a remedial alternative. Designed a bulk sediment sampling program to monitor changes in seep-related constituents over time to support the MNR Framework.

    Chemical Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Technical Lead

    Project included the design and implementation of sediment and surface water quality studies to characterize site-related constituents along approximately 2.6-miles of the tidal Delaware River adjacent to a complex, 1,500-acre industrial site. Designed a phased approach using a gridded sampling design to maximize efficiencies by focusing on areas and constituents of concern with each sampling phase. The sediment and surface water sampling program successfully characterized the nature and extent of metals, volatile- and semi-volatile organic compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners adjacent to the site and focused future investigations to select, spatially-limited areas of concern.

    Chemical Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Technical Lead

    Project included the design and implementation of studies to support a multi-phase ecological risk assessment of a complex, 1,500-acre industrial site on the tidal Delaware River in New Jersey. On-site investigations included the evaluation of ecological exposure to metals, site-specific organic compounds, PCBs, and PAHs in soils, sediments, and surface water.

    Chemical Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Technical Support

    Conducted a comprehensive Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) to assess the potential effects of DDT and its metabolites in sediments from tidal portions of the South River and a small tributary in the South River/Raritan Estuary system. The BERA demonstrated that under the existing conditions there were no impacts to populations of aquatic receptors and semi-aquatic wildlife in the South River, thereby limiting intrusive sediment remediation to a small tributary.

    Former Pigment Manufacturing Facility, New York

    Lead Ecological Risk Assessor

    New York State Department of Conservation (NYSDEC) Fish and Wildlife Resources Impact Analysis (FWRIA) of potential ecological impacts associated with metals in sediments within an approximately 18 mile portion of the Upper Hudson River downstream of a former pigment manufacturing facility. FWRIA resource characterization includes the identification and description of fish and wildlife resources in aquatic and riparian habitats within the study area.  Analysis of potential in-stream ecological impacts focuses on the identification of likely fine-grained sediment deposits outside of areas that have been remediated by other parties.  Developing a metals assessment strategy for sediment based on analyses of pore water, acid volatile sulfides (AVS), and simultaneously extractable metals (SEM) to identify site-specific exposure conditions that influence the bioavailability and toxicity of metals.

    NYSDEC FWRIA: Explosives Manufacturing Facility, New York

    Project Manager and Lead Risk Assessor

    The FWRIA included investigations of potential ecological impacts associated with elevated concentrations of mercury and other metals in terrestrial soils, sediments, surface water, and biological tissue. Designed and implemented a sediment quality triad (SQT) investigation to evaluate potential benthic invertebrate impacts. The results of the SQT study were used to develop preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) for sediments in an impacted wetland and stream complex.

    Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) Site, Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior, Wisconsin

    Technical Field Leader

    The BERA evaluated potential ecological effects associated with PAH contamination of sediment, surface water, and biota. Served as the technical field leader for SQT studies that provided spatially- and temporally-integrated chemistry, biological, and toxicological information. Interpreted SQT data to inform risk management decisions.

    Chemical Manufacturing Facility, Wisconsin

    Technical Support

    Prepared a BERA to evaluate the potential ecological effects of arsenic in sediments of the Menominee River near Marinette, Wisconsin. Data utilized to support the risk assessment included sediment characterization, sediment bioassays, and benthic community analyses.

    Orphan Mine Site, Vermont

    Technical Support

    Conducted a BERA to evaluate potential impacts of elevated concentrations of metals on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to historical copper mining operations. Used analytical chemistry, sediment and surface water bioassays, and biological community data to evaluate impacts to sediment-dwelling and aquatic receptors.

    Natural Resource Damage Assessment Experience

    Former Explosives Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Technical Lead

    Initiated a cooperative assessment with Federal Trustees to quantify potential natural resource damages associated with the historical release of mercury and other site-related constituents from a former explosives manufacturing facility. Responsibilities include coordinating the overall assessment strategy with the internal client team, developing and implementing an injury assessment approach, as well as communicating the assessment strategy and technical approach to the Trustee Group.

    Former Textile Manufacturing Facility, Virginia

    Technical Lead

    Conducted an assessment of natural resource injury associated with sediments in a mercury-impacted river. The sediment injury assessment framework included the evaluation of mercury-associated effects on benthic invertebrate receptors based on sediment toxicity, sediment, pore water, and benthic community studies. The approach and the characterization of exposure based on relevant sediment types. Also conducted statistical analyses to support the quantification of potential injuries to the warm-water fishery within the system.

    Former Manufactured Gas Plan, Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior Wisconsin

    Technical Support

    Provided technical support for the valuation of restoration projects to compensate for natural resource damages associated with sediment contamination at a site located on Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior. Used habitat equivalency analysis (HEA) to quantify the natural resource credits that could be gained from proposed restoration projects.

    Sediment Quality Studies Experience

    Port Authority, Victoria, Australia

    Filed Leader

    Project consisted of an extensive characterization of sediments in the shipping channel of Port Phillip Bay.  Sediment data collected during the study was used to support an environmental impact assessment of proposed navigational dredging operations.

    Former Chemical Manufacturing Facility, New Jersey

    Technical Lead

    Project consisted of the development and implementation of a sediment remedial action protocol to address contaminated sediments at a former industrial site on the tidal Delaware River in New Jersey. Developed risk-based sediment remedial action levels for organic constituents based on equilibrium partitioning (EqP) and implemented a multi-phase sediment delineation sampling program to support pre-remedial design investigations.

    Chemical Manufacturing Facility, Ontario, Canada

    Technical Lead

    Utilized multivariate classification and ordination analyses of benthic community data to evaluate potential sediment impacts associated with historical discharge of effluent from an industrial cooling water lagoon in an embayment of Lake Ontario.

    Former Shooting Range, Connecticut

    Technical Support

    Conducted a survey of subtidal benthic communities in Long Island Sound off the coast of Connecticut.  The survey was associated with post-remediation monitoring of sediments formerly contaminated with lead.


    Long, G., C. Mancini, M. Nicholson, and P. Mazierski. 2009. Evaluation of Benthic Communities in an Embayment of Lake Ontario Receiving Cooling Water Effluent. . Presented at the Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments in Jacksonville, Florida in February 2009.

    Bosworth, W., G. Long, D. Lauren and J. Winslow. 2007. Sediment Quality Triad Study for the Ashland/ Northern States Power Lakefront Superfund Site. Presented at the Fourth International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments in Savannah Georgia in January 2007.

    Long, G.R and Jones, R.C. 2004.  Development of predictive relationships between stressors and macrobenthic communities for use in implementing TMDLs.  Virginia Water Resources Research Center.  VWRRC Special Report SR26-2004.

    Long, G.R., Callender, E., Ayers, M.A., and Van Metre, P., 2002, Water quality trends in sediment cores from three lakes in New Jersey and one on Long Island, New York: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report. 02-4272, 26 p.

    Long, G.R., Chang, M., and Kennen, J.G., 2000, Trace elements and organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue at selected sites in New Jersey streams – sources and effects: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4235, 29 p.